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Big Data

Big Data refers to the vast and complex data sets organizations are interested in capturing and analyzing to optimize their business capabilities. Such data can come from a wide variety of data sources and goes well beyond the readily available transactional information from classic business records such as sales activity.  

This data explosion stems from the surge in internet users, social media, IoT devices, and many other platforms that make it possible to record digital activities.

The volume, variety, and velocity of data available today have surpassed the capabilities of conventional systems and led to the development of specific tools for Big Data work.  

Organizations use Big Data for various purposes, such as: 

  • Business Analytics: Companies can make informed decisions, predict future trends, and optimize strategies.
  • Healthcare: By analyzing patient data, healthcare providers can predict outbreaks, improve patient care, and discover medical insights.
  • Retail: Stores can better understand customers’ buying habits and personalize shopping experiences.
  • Transportation: Big data can be used to optimize routes, reduce costs, and improve vehicle maintenance.

Emergence of Big Data

The widespread use of the Internet and the explosion of social media platforms in the early 21st century significantly contributed to the Big Data boom. Every click, tweet, like, share, or upload generates data.  

Similarly, the Internet of Things (IoT) has connected billions of devices, from refrigerators to thermostats to cars, each producing all sorts of data. This influx from various digital touchpoints has increased the sheer volume of data and its variety and velocity.  

As industries recognized the potential of Big Data, they began developing new technologies and methodologies to harness its power. Data science, which combines statistical methods, computer science, and domain-specific knowledge, emerged as a critical discipline to derive actionable insights from big data.

Organizations also started investing heavily in extensive data infrastructure, from data lakes to advanced analytics tools.  

Characteristics of Big Data (5Vs)

  1. Volume: This refers to the amount of data. With billions of devices and users around the globe, the amount of data being produced is massive and beyond what traditional databases can handle.
  2. Velocity: The speed at which data is generated, processed, and made available. Nowadays, data streams in real-time or near-real-time, making it crucial to process it rapidly.
  3. Variety: Data comes in different formats – structured (like databases), semi-structured (like XML or JSON), and unstructured (like text or video).
  4. Veracity: Refers to the quality of the data. With so much data available, it’s essential to determine its accuracy, trustworthiness, and reliability.
  5. Value: It’s essential to extract business value from the data. Having vast data is only helpful if it can be turned into insights.

Technologies and Tools

Big Data has led to the development of new tools designed to process, store, and analyze it. Some popular ones include:

  • Hadoop: An open-source framework that allows distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of computers.
  • Spark: An open-source, parallel-processing framework faster than Hadoop and capable of handling real-time data analytics.
  • NoSQL Databases: MongoDB, Cassandra, and Couchbase are designed to scale by distributing the data across many servers.

New Challenges

While big data offers many opportunities, it also presents challenges:

  • Security and Privacy: Protecting vast amounts of data, especially personal information, is paramount.
  • Data Silos: Data can be scattered across different organizational departments, making it hard to access and analyze.
  • Lack of Expertise: As Big Data is a relatively new field, there is a need for more skilled professionals who can effectively manage and analyze the data.


Big Data in IT has revolutionized the way organizations operate, offering insights that were previously impossible to obtain.

With the right tools, skills, and strategies, companies can harness the power of Big Data to drive innovation, enhance decision-making, and gain a competitive advantage.  

A good overview of Big Data activities – 6 mins

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A short clip with more technical details – 5 mins

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